Skema Ic 7812

Skema Ic 7812

5 min read Jul 10, 2024
Skema Ic 7812

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IC 7812: A Comprehensive Guide

The IC 7812 is a widely used positive voltage regulator that outputs a stable 12 volts DC. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the IC 7812, covering its features, specifications, applications, and working principle.

Features of IC 7812:

  • Fixed Output Voltage: The IC 7812 provides a fixed output voltage of 12 volts.
  • Three-Terminal Regulator: It is a three-terminal device with input, output, and ground terminals.
  • Current Limiting: The IC 7812 includes an internal current limiting mechanism to protect against overloads.
  • Thermal Shutdown: This feature prevents damage to the IC in case of overheating.
  • Short-Circuit Protection: The IC 7812 is designed to withstand short-circuits without permanent damage.
  • Easy to Use: It is relatively simple to integrate into circuits, requiring minimal external components.

Specifications of IC 7812:

  • Output Voltage: 12 volts DC
  • Input Voltage: Typically 14 to 35 volts DC
  • Output Current: Up to 1 Ampere
  • Dropout Voltage: 2 volts (minimum voltage difference between input and output)
  • Line Regulation: Typically less than 0.1%
  • Load Regulation: Typically less than 0.1%
  • Operating Temperature: -55°C to +150°C

Applications of IC 7812:

The IC 7812 finds applications in various electronic circuits and systems, including:

  • Power Supply Design: Creating regulated 12V power supplies for various applications.
  • Digital and Analog Circuits: Providing a stable 12V supply for digital and analog circuits, including microcontrollers, sensors, and actuators.
  • Automotive Electronics: Used in automotive applications, such as powering car stereos and other electronic components.
  • Industrial Control Systems: Providing a reliable and regulated power source for industrial control systems.
  • Hobby Projects: Popular for DIY projects and hobbyists who require a regulated 12V source.

Working Principle of IC 7812:

The IC 7812 uses a series pass transistor to regulate the output voltage. The input voltage is applied to the input terminal, and the output voltage is taken from the output terminal.

The internal circuitry of the IC 7812 includes:

  • Reference Voltage Source: Provides a stable reference voltage.
  • Error Amplifier: Compares the output voltage with the reference voltage.
  • Series Pass Transistor: Adjusts its resistance based on the error signal to maintain the desired output voltage.

When the output voltage drops below the reference voltage, the error amplifier sends a signal to the series pass transistor, increasing its conductivity. This lowers the voltage drop across the transistor, increasing the output voltage. Conversely, when the output voltage rises above the reference voltage, the error amplifier decreases the conductivity of the series pass transistor, thereby lowering the output voltage.


The IC 7812 is a versatile and readily available voltage regulator. It provides a stable 12V output with a wide range of applications, making it an essential component for electronics hobbyists, engineers, and professionals alike. By understanding the features, specifications, applications, and working principle of the IC 7812, one can effectively use it in various electronic circuits and systems.

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